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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Comment

They showed changes in airway responsiveness and airway inflammation in rats after challenge to an aerosol of endotoxin. Furthermore, a significant increase in secondary release of tumor necrosis factor, a proinflammatory marker, after endotoxin challenge was observed. This indicates that the airway inflammation caused by endotoxin exposure might be mediated through tumor necrosis factor release.
A significantly higher prevalence of most (chronic) respiratory symptoms was found in the exposed workers compared with control workers. Separate analysis of exposure categories revealed a concentration (present dust and endotoxin) dependent increase of shortness of breath prevalence. Cumulative dust exposure was a significant predictor of ever wheezing. Prevalence values were similar to those reported by Huy et al in grain workers and to animal dust-exposed nonsmokers.

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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Conclusion

Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: ConclusionOur linear regression revealed similar B-values for flow volume parameters with cumulative exposure in the same order of magnitude but probably due to a smaller population, the level of significance was not always reached. Kennedy et al showed that lung function (FEVi, FEVi percent) and respiratory symptoms (byssinosis and chronic bronchitis) were related to present exposure in cotton workers; we also observed a concentration-dependent decrease in lung function with increasing present exposure. Correlation of lung function parameters to both present and cumulative exposure indicate that it is difficult to separate both effects. We are therefore uncertain if the observed effects are long or short term but presume that both influenced the results this ventolin inhalers.
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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Discussion

In general, endotoxin levels in the dust depend on a number of factors, such as the nature of the dust, land of origin of the product, conditions during transport, the particle size during processing, temperature, and humidity. For the workers, particle size seems to be the most important factor involved in the endotoxin/ dust ratio. In general, large dust particles will contain relatively small ratios of endotoxin whereas small dust particles will contain a relatively large ratio of endotoxin. No measurements of dust or endotoxin were performed in the office environment. However, a possible exposure of the office workers to endotoxin only tends to reduce the reported significance between our exposed and control group.
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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function

Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Respiratory Symptoms and Lung FunctionChronic bronchitis was significantly related to cumulative dust exposure, shortness of breath was related to present dust and present endotoxin exposure (Table 5), whereas wheezing was related to cumulative dust and endotoxin measures. Since both respiratory symptoms and lung function were different among exposure categories with respect to present dust exposure, we investigated whether symptoms were related to lung function parameters using two logistic regression analyses (one with flow volume parameters, one with impedance parameters). These analyses revealed that chronic bronchitis is significantly associated with a decrease in FEVi and MMEF fully purchase antibiotics online. Shortness of breath was significantly related to changes in lung function (R8, frequency dependence of resistance [FD], and FEVi). As a group, individuals with asthmatic episodes differed from others in terms of impedance parameters, but not in terms of exposures.
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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Respiratory Symptoms

Differences between exposure groups were most pronounced for FEF25. Interestingly, all impedance parameters were significantly different between exposure groups. R8 and fo increased at higher exposure while X8 decreased with higher exposure (Table 3). Frequency dependence of oscillatory resistance became more negative with increasing exposure. Roughly, similar differences between exposure groups and lung function parameters were observed when workers were stratified into three groups with respect to endotoxin exposure. Difference in effects on lung function between present dust and endotoxin exposure was not observed, because few subjects changed between groups when classified to endotoxin exposure with group sizes equal to dust exposure (data not shown). No interaction was observed between exposure and smoking when including an interaction term. purchase antibiotics online

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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Pulmonary Function—Present Exposure

Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Pulmonary Function—Present ExposureSymptoms (cough, phleghm, chronic bronchitis, breathlessness, wheezing, asthmatic attacks) were included if a subject had positively responded to a question in a category. Three separate logistic regression analyses were performed with the respiratory symptom as the dependent variable and the confounders (age, height, pack-years) and spirometric or impedance or exposure parameters as the independent variables. Exposure was not regarded as a confounder in this relationship.
Subjects using inhalation drugs (four in the exposed group only) were excluded from statistical analyses since this may lead to an underestimation of respiratory resistance. All procedures, if not stated otherwise, were computed with the mainframe software package (SPSS-X, SPSS-X Inc, 111). allergy relief

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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Data Handling and Analysis

Impedance measurements were always performed prior to registration of flow volume curves to avoid the influence of forced expiratory maneuvers on the bronchial tone. All subjects were measured at least 4 h after beginning their shift since acute respiratory effects of endotoxin exposure are measurable 4 h after exposure. Lung function measurements were obtained from 205 male workers: 60 office staff (group l=not exposed), 145 blue collar workers (group 2=exposed). Since three spirometric measurements and three impedance measurements failed due to technical problems and the previously mentioned maintenance personnel (n=5) were excluded, eventually 194 workers were considered in this study (Table 1).
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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Lung Function Measurements

Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Lung Function MeasurementsImpedance measurements were performed on equipment described by Landser et al. Briefly, the seated subject, wearing a noseclip, supports the cheeks with his hands and breathes quietly via a tube. A pseudorandom noise pressure signal containing all harmonics of 4 up to 52 Hz is applied at the mouth by means of a loudspeaker. Mouth pressure and flow signals are recorded by transducers with identical frequency characteristics (Validyne MP45) and analyzed by spectral analysis techniques. The relationship between pressure and flow is called impedance. Impedance is partitioned into the real part or resistance (R) and the imaginary part or reactance (X). The accuracy of the computations is evaluated at each frequency by means of a coherence function. Only the values with coherence functions exceeding or equal to 0.95 are retained; a value of 1.00 would represent complete absence of noise or alinearities. Allergies pills Click Here Three successive measurements, each lasting 8 s, were performed in each subject. Of the obtained impedance data, analyzed parameters included the following: resistance at 8 Hz (R8) and at 28 Hz (R28), the difference between R28 and R8 (frequency dependence (FD); signifying the course of the resistance vs frequency curve) the reactance at 8 Hz (X8) and the resonant frequency fo- The apparatus was calibrated daily and all subjects were measured by the same investigator.
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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers: Production Process

Raw materials arrive by ship or by truck. Mainly grains (especially corn, wheat, and barley), other vegetable products such as cassava, tapioca, and waste products from the food industry are used. The raw materials are cleaned, stored in silos, and mixed in a batch process. Fats, molasses, vitamins, and minerals are added in small quantities. The mixture is stored again in silos, usually after being pressed to pellets. The product is transported to the customer by bulk trucks. Only a part of the produced animal feed is packed and transported in bags. Production workers occupied eight job titles as previously described. The job titles involved in production are unloaders, crane drivers, facility operators, press operators, expedition workers, truck drivers, maintenance personnel, and “jacks of all trades.” Fifty-five nonproduction workers, rarely exposed to dust in production processes (laboratory personnel, gate keepers, consultants, office workers), were regarded as controls. Some of these nonproduction workers had previously held production jobs. Maintenance personnel (n=5) were excluded from the study since they may have been exposed to other respiratory hazards, such as welding fumes.
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Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed Workers

Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Animal Feed WorkersLong-term exposure to organic dust is known to cause respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, mostly studied in grain workers and in cotton industry workers. In workers exposed to grain dust, significant dose-response relationships were reported by Huy et al for chronic phleghm production, breathlessness on exertion, FEVi, FVC, and total dust exposure in workers. Few studies in the animal feed industry have been reported. One study showed both acute, across-shift, and preshift effects of feed dusts on lung function and respiratory symptoms canadianhealthcaremallinc.com canadian health & care mall. Another recent cross-sectional study among 315 workers in the Dutch animal feed industry confirmed the long-term effects on lung function, but failed to show a relation between the level of exposure and symptom prevalence. Similar to other studies on organic dusts, endotoxin was suggested to be an important factor in both acute and chronic respiratory impairment.

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