No studies have investigated the direct and indirect costs of the health consequences of passive smoking. Since passive smokers choose not to smoke, the medical disabilities and cost of illness from passive smoking does not fall upon the shoulders of the smoker, but is diverted directly to nonsmokers and their employers. The out-of-pocket loss is reflected ultimately in higher premium costs for private and government health agencies.
In working areas where smoking is permitted, passive smokers often are exposed to tobacco smoke concentrations similar to those found in active smokers. Calculations according to the “ventilation standards” of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers indicate that during an 8-h work shift, passive smokers inhale the equivalent smoke found in two to three cigarettes. The Surgeon General reports that active smoking is the leading contributory factor in respiratory disease mortality, that indoor air polluted with tobacco smoke poses a significant threat to the health of nonsmokers, and there is no safe level of tobacco smoke consumption. buy birth control online
We conclude that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke in the work place produces significant eye irritation and increases respiratory symptoms and the incidence of chest colds. With additional illness, employees lose more days from work. Both workers and employers share significant financial loss when absenteeism occurs from tobacco smoke-induced chest illnesses and chest colds.