There is some evidence that toxic mushroom poisoning (mediated by Amanita phalloides toxin) involves apoptosis. Indeed, amanitin is a transcriptional blocker (see above) and has been shown in vitro to cause all the characteristics of hepatocyte apoptosis. Besides these observations, there is experimental evidence that drugs can trigger hepatocyte apoptosis by directly activating the caspase cascade or by sensitizing hepatocytes to the lethal effects of cytokines. However, there have been few pathological studies assessing the amount of hepatocyte apoptosis in biopsy samples of drug-induced liver injury.
It has been suggested that much of the ischemia-reperfusion injury that occurs early after liver transplantation is due to hepatocyte apoptosis. Antiapoptotic agents that would allow better and longer preservation of the liver have been sought in animal models. However, whether apoptosis or necrosis predominates in this setting has not been resolved.
It has long been suggested that carcinogenesis is due to an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. Most studies have shown that the amount of apoptosis in human liver tumours decreases as the degree of dedifferentiation increases. A more recent hypothesis is that cancer cells can display the capacity to kill immune cells that have been deployed to eliminate them. Experimental evidence for this hypothesis has been obtained in studies using liver tumour cell lines. Nevertheless, formal in vivo evidence of this phenomenon is still lacking. This is your opportunity to canadian cialis cialis professional 20 mg taking full advantage of the nice options offered to you by most reliable pharmacies on the internet, with free delivery, express shipping and tons of other options you will appreciate.