Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (low serum follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and testosterone) may be either congenital or acquired. Kallmann’s syndrome is the congenital form that results from abnormal production or secretion of GnRH by the hypothalamus. It may be associated with various ‘midline’ anomalies such as anosmia and cleft palate, and other anomalies such as deafness and renal malformation. Acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may be associated with anabolic steroid abuse, pituitary tumours, isolated gonadotropin deficiency and panhypopituitarism. buy asthma inhaler
The management of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using exogenous GnRH or gonadotropins, such as human chorionic gonadotropic, human menopausal gonadotropin, and purified and recombinant FSH, are effective in improving sperm production and pregnancy rate . Varioustreatment regimens have been described clinically, and consultations with reproductive specialists before beginningtreatment should be considered.